PCP has also been recently implicated in a major global health care concern, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) also known as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It appears that low levels of Pneumocystis in the lungs of both HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects are associated with development and/or progression of COPD. It has also been found that Pneumocystis colonization is an independent predictor of more severe COPD in normal subjects. If these studies directly connecting PCP to COPD are an indication, the market potential for MVX504 could be expanded significantly. In a report released by the CDC in December 2010, COPD is listed as the third leading cause of death in the US, affecting an estimated 24 million Americans.